VATICAN CITY (CNA) - After publishing a highly controversial essay in July 2017 alleging the existence of an "ecumenism of hate" between Catholics and Evangelicals in the U.S., close papal confidantes Father Antonio Spadaro, SJ, and Marcelo Figueroa in a new article issue a scathing critique of the "prosperity gospel," which they say is based on a reductionist view of the American Dream.
In the new essay, run July 18 in the Jesuit-run magazine "La Civilta Cattolica," which is directed by Spadaro, the authors argue that the prosperity gospel, rooted in late 19th century America, is closely tied to the Protestant Evangelical movement in the U.S., and sees power, wealth and success as the result of one's faith, while poverty and misfortune are signs of a lack of faith.
"The risk of this form of religious anthropocentrism, which puts humans and their well-being at the center, is that it transforms God into a power at our service, the Church into a supermarket of faith, and religion into a utilitarian phenomenon that is eminently sensationalist and pragmatic," they said.
Father Spadaro and Figueroa, a Protestant who heads the Argentine section of Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano, said the prosperity gospel is "a reductive interpretation" of the American Dream.
Though historically this dream saw the United States as a heaven for economic migrants seeking better opportunities than were available in their homeland, Father Spadaro and Figueroa argue that this vision has turned into a distorted religious belief being put forward by big-name Evangelical televangelists.
The authors cited U.S. President Donald Trump's Jan. 30 State of the Union address, in which the president pointed to popular American motto "in God we trust" and spoke of importance of family and the military, a clear indication that they see Trump as an example of this "neo-Pentecostal" brand of theology.
Father Spadaro and Figueroa said the two main "pillars" of the prosperity gospel are health and economic success - a mentality they said stems from "a literalist exegesis of some biblical texts that are taken within a reductionist hermeneutic."
Popular televangelist personalities such as Joel Osteen, Oral Roberts, Pat Robertson, Benny Hinn, Robert Tilton and Joyce Meyer, who are often considered to be key prosperity gospel figures in the United States, were dubbed by Spadaro and Figueroa as "evangelicals of the American Dream."
"Their growth is exponential and directly proportional to the economic, physical and spiritual benefits they promise their followers," the authors said, adding that "all these blessings are far removed from the life of conversion usually taught by the traditional evangelical movements."
Father Spadaro and Figueroa argued that these preachers take scripture out of context, diffusing a message that God is at the service of humanity, and that one can obtain blessings and prosperity, whether physical or economic, simply through religious conviction.
There is a "lack of empathy and solidarity" on issues like migration from adherents to the prosperity gospel approach, they argued.
In this movement, "there can be no compassion for those who are not prosperous, for clearly they have not followed the rules and thus live in failure and are not loved by God," Father Spadaro and Figueroa argued.
Biblical teachings such as "you reap what you sow" or that one will receive "a hundredfold" for their good works have been reduced to a "contract" in which the more one gives, the more they expect to get in return, the authors said.
Under this approach, God is made in the image of man, they said, and people believe that they can earn their own success through their actions, making the thought of poverty "unbearable," because "first, the person thinks their faith is unable to move the providential hands of God; second, their miserable situation is a divine imposition, a relentless punishment to be accepted in submission."
When it comes to the prosperity gospel and the American Dream, Father Spadaro and Figueroa said the problem is that the financial success of the United States has been seen as a direct result of America's faith in God.
"It leads to the conclusion that the United States has grown as a nation under the blessing of the providential God of the Evangelical movement," they said. "Meanwhile, those who dwell south of the Rio Grande are sinking in poverty because the Catholic Church has a different, opposed vision exalting poverty."
This view not only "exasperates individualism and knocks down the sense of solidarity," they said, but it also "pushes people to adopt a miracle-centered outlook, because faith alone - not social or political commitment - can procure prosperity."
And the risk in this is that "the poor who are fascinated by this pseudo-Gospel remain dazzled in a socio-political emptiness that easily allows other forces to shape their world, making them innocuous and defenseless," Father Spadaro and Figueroa said, adding that "the prosperity gospel is not a cause of real change, a fundamental aspect of the vision that is innate to the social doctrine of the Church."
The two closed their essay saying the prosperity gospel is product of two ancient heresies - Pelagianism and Gnosticism - which Pope Francis, who has consistently spoken out against the prosperity gospel mentality, warned of in his recent apostolic exhortation on holiness, Gaudete et Exsultate.
The prosperity gospel, they said, is "a far cry" from the original American Dream, which they described as a "positive and enlightening prophecy" that has inspired many, and which is embodied in civil rights defender Dr. Martin Luther King Jr's legendary "I Have a Dream" speech.